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1. Processing of commercial business complex wastes into biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction        process to produce power and bio-degradable plastic blends



Solid waste management issue is the biggest challenge to the authorities of both small and large sized business buildings in developing cities. This is mainly due to the increasing generation of such solid waste and the burden posed on the disposal budget. In addition to the high costs, the solid waste management is associated with lack of understanding over different factors that affect the entire handling system. Government bodies and corporations enforce strict regulations on commercial solid wastes management. Commercial complexes are held responsible for their waste management, and they are expected to provide an effective and efficient system to the inhabitants. Nevertheless, they often face many problems beyond their abilities to handle the waste. This is essentially due to financial resources, lack of organization and complexity. Many commercial bodies are now focusing on adopting low-cost waste remediation technologies for their sustainable growth.


X2Fuels is treating wet un-segregated commercial complex wastes including food wastes, plastic wastes, litters and other organic wastes by HTL process to produce bio-crude. The project is currently funded by IIT Madras Incubation Cell through a CSR fund from a private technology company called Trimble. The objective of the project is to upgrade the quality of HTL bio-crude into diesel-like fuel oil by hydrodeoxygenation process and produce power with the upgraded HTL bio-crude in a stationary diesel generator engine, and in a micro gas turbine. The project also aims to  produce bio-degradable plastic blends from HTL bio-crude, and demonstrate their applications in bio-degradable polymer films.

2. Processing of Municipal Solid Waste via Hydrothermal Liquefaction to Produce Xcrude



India generates over 150,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day. The global annual generation of biomass waste is of the order of 140 giga tons. Biowastes such as manure and municipal waste contain a variety of bioactive compounds of emerging concerns (e.g., pharmaceuticals, hormones, and antibiotic resistant genetic materials) that pose risks to human health, economic productivity, ecosystem services, and the long-term sustainability of agricultural activities. We have identified hydrothermal liquefaction as the suitable technology in which any kind of waste can be treated and converted into renewable Xcrude.


X2Fuels is developing a 100 L hydrothermal liquefaction unit to convert municipal solid wastes into Xcrude with the support of Engineers India Limited (EIL). Through the partnership, X2Fuels is trying to produce more stable and eco-friendly fuels from solid wastes through the unique liquefaction technology. The major aim of this project is to produce large amount of bio-crude, assess its quality, and upgrade it so that it can be seamlessly integrated with a refinery infrastructure.

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